Location Based Technologies
Location Based Services (LBS) include applications that depend on the user location to provide a service/information that is relevant to the user at that location. LBS normally use mobile devices with positioning ability to provide the service or information to the user
A location-based service (LBS) is a software application for an IP-capable mobile device that requires knowledge about where the mobile device is located. Location-based services can be query-based and provide the end user with useful information such as “Where is the nearest ATM?” or they can be push-based and deliver coupons or other marketing information to customers who are in a specific geographical area.
Digital mapping / digital cartography is the process by which a collection of data is compiled and formatted into a virtual image. The primary function of this technology is to produce maps that give accurate representations of a particular area, detailing major road arteries and other points of interest. It involves the creation and analyses of maps through the use of computers. As such, Geographical Information Systems (Desktop & Web GIS) are an integral tool for Cartography. The purpose of a digital map is to provide a meaningful picture of reality. A map, therefore, can be a particularly useful guide in the orientation of terrain, as well as conveying other multi-faceted information through supplementary annotations.
Cartographically finished maps & charts, are the practical interface for the application of GIS, and they help people engage with geographic information. Interactive maps allow users and business’s to explore places, access information, discover patterns, edit information and analyse information over time to understand trends.
Digital cartography provide improved collaboration, less redundancy, greater efficiency in preparation all types of maps, aeronautical & charts and info-graphics. As mobility and communication technologies become available and affordable, the need for ‘going digital’ increases. Initiatives, like Digital India will become reality in years to come.
Initially, Tablets like the iPad, Windows and Android devices all pulling the world’s population into a mobile future. We don’t see people sending geospatial files through the mail, in fact, most postal agencies are experiencing rapid and fundamental changes as people share files digitally and connect through social media innovations.
As cartographic activities moved along with this change, many people experienced the benefits of digital cartography. They could make maps easier, particularly as automation increase, and they could share data with colleagues more readily – giving rise to people voicing a need for more openness.
Another benefit that arose with digital cartography and increased sharing was the ability to integrate and re-create new data, perform geospatial analysis and to be able to push new found knowledge around the global at the press of a button.
Instantly, anyone around the world can create a map for use in places where they do not live, thereby providing high quality services to the most remote of locations quickly. It is this benefit that can perhaps carry the largest benefits, it extends well beyond the sharing data, collaborating phases, to embrace the publishing and knowledge sharing aspects of information exchange.
Transformation is often the outcome of more knowledge. As digital cartography becomes increasingly available to more people, with greater amounts of details, including cultural intelligence embedded into it, then it should be realized that we are at a time when true, effective and positive transformational change can take place – like no other time. Some Softwares/tool for digital cartography are mention below.
Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on site observation. It also replaces costly and slow data collection on the ground, ensuring in the process that areas or objects are not disturbed. Its uses include different areas such as natural resource management, environment, agricultural land usage & conservation, and Defense & security and many more.Knowledge Spatial provide technical expertise, Software solution and services to the customers across government, industry, and academia, with focus on Indian and foreign satellite sensors’ capabilities, reliability, and accuracy.
Geographic Information System
A Geographical Information System (GIS) is a computer system for capturing, storing, displaying and analyzing data related to positions on Earth’s surface. A geographic information system (GIS) lets us visualize, question, analyze, and interpret data to understand relationships, patterns, and trends in spatial context. GIS provide Improved Communication, transparency, better decision making environment. Also, managing things geographically brings greater efficiency with least cost. GIS benefits organizations of all sizes and in almost every industry. Knowledge Spatial offers GIS based solutions and services, data creation, analysis and management services to meet the enterprise requirements .
With GIS technology, people can compare the locations of different things in order to discover how they relate to each other. For example, using GIS, the same map could include sites that produce pollution, such as gas stations, and sites that are sensitive to pollution, such as wetlands. Such a map would help people determine which wetlands are most at risk.
GIS can use any information that includes location. The location can be expressed in many different ways, such as latitude and longitude, address, or PIN code. Many different types of information can be compared and juxtaposed using GIS. The system can include data about people, such as population, income, or education level. It can include information about the land, such as the location of streams, different kinds of vegetation, and different kinds of soil. It can include information about the sites of factories, farms, and schools, or sewerage, roads, and electric power lines etc.
Data in many different forms can be entered into GIS. Data that are already in map form can be included in GIS. This includes such information as the location of rivers and roads, hills and valleys. Digital, or computerized, data can also be entered into GIS. An example of this kind of information is data collected by satellites that show land use / cover—the location of agriculture fields, cities / towns, or forests. GIS can also include data in table form, such as population information. GIS technology allows all these different types of information, no matter their source or original format, to be overlaid on top of one another on a single map.
Putting information into GIS is called data capture. Data that are already in digital form, such as images taken by satellites and most tables, can simply be uploaded into GIS. Maps must be scanned, or converted into digital information.
GIS must make the information from all the various maps and sources align, so they fit together. One reason this is necessary is because maps have different scales. A scale is the relationship between the distance on a map and the actual distance on Earth. GIS combines the information from different sources in such a way that it all has the same scale.
Often, GIS must also manipulate the data because different maps have different projections. A projection is the method of transferring information from Earth’s curved surface to a flat piece of paper or computer screen. No projection can copy the reality of Earth’s curved surface perfectly. Different types of projections accomplish this task in different ways, but all result in some distortion. To transfer a curved, three-dimensional shape onto a flat surface inevitably requires stretching some parts and squeezing other parts. A world map can show either the correct sizes of countries or their correct shapes, but it can’t do both. GIS takes data from maps that were made using different projections and combines them so all the information can be displayed using one common projection.
Once all of the desired data have been entered and managed into a GIS system, they can be combined to produce a wide variety of individual maps, depending on which data layers are included. For instance, using GIS technology, many kinds of information can be shown about a single city. Maps can be produced that relate such information as average income, book sales, and voting patterns. Any GIS data layer can be added or subtracted to the same map. GIS maps can be used to show information about number and density. For example, GIS can be used to show how many banks or doctors there are in different areas compared with the population.