E-governance is the application of information and communication technology (ICT) for delivering government services, exchange of information communication transactions, integration of various stand-alone systems and services.

Through e-governance, government services will be made available to citizens in a convenient, efficient and transparent manner. Generally four basic models are available – government-to-citizen (customer), government-to-employees, government-to-government and government-to-business.

Digital India is an initiative of Government of India to integrate the government departments and the people of India. It aims at ensuring that the government services are made available to citizens electronically by reducing paperwork. A two-way platform will be created where both the service providers and the consumers stand to benefit.

The initiative also includes plan to connect rural areas with high-speed internet networks. Digital India program will boost the services in rural and urban areas by harnessing the strengths of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)

Rural & Urban Development

Rural development is the process of improving the quality of life and economic well-being of people living in relatively isolated and sparsely populated areas. Rural development has traditionally centered on the exploitation of land-intensive natural resources such as agriculture and forestry.

Rural Development ministry is entrusted with the task of accelerating the socio-economic development of rural India. Its focus is on health, education, drinking water, housing and roads etc.

Infrastructure & Transportation

Infrastructure refers to the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function. It typically characterises technical structures such as roads, bridges, tunnels, water supply, sewers, electrical grids, telecommunications, and so forth.


Energy generated by using wind, tides, solar, geothermal heat, and biomass including farm and animal waste as well as human excreta is known as non-conventional energy. All these sources are renewable or inexhaustible and do not cause environmental pollution. More over they do not require heavy expenditure.

Wind Energy : Wind power is harnessed by setting up a windmill which is used for pumping water, grinding grain and generating electricity.

Thermal Power : onventional Energy. Conventional energysources includes oil, gas and coal. Theseconventional sources are usually fossil fuels. Their use leads to increased greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental damage

Solar Power : Sun is the source of all energy on the earth. It is most abundant, inexhaustible and universal source of energy

Nuclear power : Nuclear energy is the energy in the nucleus, or core, of an atom. Atoms are tiny units that make up all matter in the universe. Energy is what holds the nucleus together. There is a huge amount of power in an atoms dense nucleus

Hydro electricity  : Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy

Bio mass plant : Biomass refers to all plant material and animal excreta when considered as an energy source. Some important kinds of biomass are inferior wood, urban waste, bagasse, farm animal and human waste

Environment & Climate Change

  • Draught : A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in its water supply, whether atmospheric, surface or ground water
  • Desert: Twenty-five per cent of India’s total land is undergoing desertification while 32 per cent is facing degradation that has affected its productivity, critically affecting the livelihood and food security of millions across the country. It is posing challenges need effective management and monitoring.
  • Wildlife:  Like forests, wildlife is also a national resource which not only helps in maintaining the ecological balance but is also beneficial from economic, recre­ational and aesthetic points of view. There was a time when human interference was minimum, the number of wild animals was quite high and there was no problem of their protection or conservation.
  • But, with the expansion of agriculture, settlement, industrial and other developmental activities and mainly due to greed of man the number of wild animals gradually became lesser and lesser.
  • Forest/ deforestation / forest fire / forest plantation

The loss forest cover influences the climate and contributes to a loss of biodiversity. The economic activity is adversely affected by siltation, flooding, soil degradation and reduced timber supplies. Thus, in turn, threatens the livelihood of people.

  • Forest fire may be natural or manmade, and cause huge forest loss. Need proper monitoring and control.
  • Social forestry means the management and protection of forests and afforestation on barren lands with the purpose of helping in the environmental, social and rural development.
  • Air pollution: Air pollution in India is quite a serious issue with the major sources being fuelwood and biomass burning, fuel adulteration, vehicle emission and traffic congestion. In autumn and winter months, large scale crop residue burning in agriculture fields – a low cost alternative to mechanical tilling – is a major source of smoke, smog and particulate pollution
  • Water pollution : Water pollution is a major environmental issue in India. The largest source of water pollution in India is untreated sewage. Other sources of pollution include agricultural runoff and unregulated small scale industry. Most rivers, lakes and surface water in India are polluted
  • Climate change : The effects of global warming on the Indian subcontinent vary from the submergence of low-lying islands and coastal lands to the melting of glaciers in the Indian Himalayas, threatening the volumetric flow rate of many of the most important rivers of India . In India, such effects are projected to impact millions of lives. As a result of ongoing climate change, the climate of India has become increasingly volatile over the past several decades; this trend is expected to continue.

Defense & Security

The Indian Armed Forces are the military forces of the Union of Republic of India. It consists of three professional uniformed services: the Indian Army,Indian Navy, Indian Air Force. Additionally, the Indian Armed Forces are supported by three paramilitary organisations[15] (Assam Rifles, Indian Coast Guard and Special Frontier Force) and various inter-service institutions such as the Strategic Forces Command.

It is important to note that the Central Armed Police Forces, which are commonly and incorrectly referred to as ‘Paramilitary Forces’, are headed by officers from the Indian Police Service and are under the control of the Ministry of Home Affairs, not the Ministry of Defence.

Health & Education

Health and education are the foundation for human development. It is difficult to hold a job or care for a family if one is sick, or doesn’t have relevant skills and knowledge. Expanding access to health and education services is a central element for any strategy to eliminate poverty and reduce inequality