Geo BI & Analytics

Geo BI & Analytics

Geo Business Intelligence & Analytics

Geo-Business Intelligence is a collection of technologies that combines Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Business Intelligence (BI) for evaluation of the results achieved, planning and decision-making. The merging of these two technologies, by connecting large amounts of data, provides a powerful visualization system able to combine useful government and enterprises information with GIS systems. Knowledge Spatial provides solutions and services to the enterprises for business data intelligence and analytics.





Crime Hotspot

Crime Hotspot



Population Density

Population Density



R-logoR is a free software environment for statistical computing and graphics. It compiles and runs on a wide variety of UNIX platforms, Windows and MacOS.

geokettle_logoGeoKettle is a powerful, metadata-driven Spatial ETL tool dedicated to the integration of different spatial data sources for building and updating geospatial data warehouses. GeoKettle enables the Extraction of data from data sources, the Transformation of data in order to correct errors, make some data cleansing, change the data structure, make them compliant to defined standards, and the Loading of transformed data into a target DataBase Management System (DBMS) in OLTP or OLAP/SOLAP mode, GIS file or Geospatial Web Service.

geomondrian-logoGeoMondrian is an Open Source Spatial Online Analytical Processing Server, a spatially-enabled version of Pentaho Analysis Services (Mondrian). It has been released under the EPL.GeoMondrian is the first implementation of a true SOLAP server. It provides a consistent integration of spatial objects into the OLAP data cube structure, instead of fetching them from a separate spatial database, web service or GIS file. To make a simple analogy, GeoMondrian brings to the Mondrian OLAP server what PostGIS brings to the PostgreSQL database management system. It implements a native geometry data type and provides spatial extensions to the MDX query language, allowing embedding spatial analysis capabilities into analytical queries.

D3-logoD3.js is a JavaScript library for manipulating documents based on data. D3 helps you bring data to life using HTML, SVG, and CSS. D3’s emphasis on web standards gives you the full capabilities of modern browsers without tying yourself to a proprietary framework, combining powerful visualization components and a data-driven approach to DOM manipulation.

Location Based Technologies

Location Based Technologies

Location Based Services (LBS) include applications that depend on the user location to provide a service/information that is relevant to the user at that location. LBS normally use mobile devices with positioning ability to provide the service or information to the user. Knowledge Spatial offers LBS technology based solutions and services to address the need of enterprise requirements.

Location Based Solutions





Fleet Management


Emergency Response


Traffic Monitoiring


Public Safety


Spatial Modeling


Spatial Analysis


Route Analysis

Route Analysis

3D Analysis


Proximity Analysis


SAR Imagary


Location Based Services (LBS) include applications that depend on the user location to provide a service/information that is relevant to the user at that location. LBS normally use mobile devices with positioning ability to provide the service or information to the user
A location-based service (LBS) is a software application for an IP-capable mobile device that requires knowledge about where the mobile device is located. Location-based services can be query-based and provide the end user with useful information such as “Where is the nearest ATM?” or they can be push-based and deliver coupons or other marketing information to customers who are in a specific geographical area.

An LBS has five basic components:

  • Software application
  • A mobile network to transmit data and requests for service
  • A content provider to supply the end user with geo-specific information
  • A positioning component (see GPS)
  • End user’s mobile device.

Some examples of location-based services are:

Navigation and Travel – Applications in this category allow a user to perform a search based in part on location, i.e., to find the nearest hotel, ATM, bus stop, or particular restaurant
Tracking and Geosocial Networking – Using applications in this category, users can share their location with friends, family, or strangers via online social networks. Included in this category are applications that recommend restaurants or other places of interest based on where a user’s network of “friends” has checked-in, or that enables businesses to reward their customers for loyalty based on repeated visits or check-ins. Other applications in this category enable parents to track the location of their children, family and caregivers to monitor dementia patients, and pet owners to recover lost dogs.
Gaming and Entertainment – These applications allow users to play games on their wireless devices with friends and family, persons in their local network, or anyone online. Some location-based games track phone movement and create real-life scavenger hunts. This category also includes photography and video applications that record the GPS location tags for photos and videos or allow users to add location information to their photos.

Retail and Real Estate – Retail applications enable consumers to find the nearest store, provide in-store maps, check real-time inventory data, or shop from their phone, while real estate applications show houses for sale or rent or in foreclosure in a given area.
Advertising – Location-based advertising allows users to receive ads relevant to their current location or based on patterns of frequently visited locations. The ads generally appear within other applications or in web browser windows.
News and Weather – These applications provide users with weather and news targeted to their specific location.
Device Management – LBS management applications allow users to track and control their wireless devices from other sources (like a home computer) or to control other devices from their wireless devices. This may include tracking, locking, or erasing a lost phone, or locating, unlocking, and starting a vehicle.
Public Safety – Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) application provide capability to dispatch the nearest Police Control Room (PCR) Vehicle to the incident side in a responsive manner.

Digital Cartography

Digital cartography provides improved collaboration, less redundancy, greater efficiency in preparation all types of maps, aeronautical & charts and info-graphics.  As mobility and communication technologies become available and affordable, the need for ‘going digital’ increases. Initiatives, like Digital India will become reality in years to come. Knowledge Spatial offers Digital Cartography solutions and services for building cartographic databases to generate dynamic, high quality maps, charts & infographics for web publishing and printing.







Digital mapping / digital cartography is the process by which a collection of data is compiled and formatted into a virtual image. The primary function of this technology is to produce maps that give accurate representations of a particular area, detailing major road arteries and other points of interest. It involves the creation and analyses of maps through the use of computers. As such, Geographical Information Systems (Desktop & Web GIS) are an integral tool for Cartography. The purpose of a digital map is to provide a meaningful picture of reality. A map, therefore, can be a particularly useful guide in the orientation of terrain, as well as conveying other multi-faceted information through supplementary annotations.

Cartographically finished maps & charts, are the practical interface for the application of GIS, and they help people engage with geographic information. Interactive maps allow users and business’s to explore places, access information, discover patterns, edit information and analyse information over time to understand trends.

Digital cartography provide improved collaboration, less redundancy, greater efficiency in preparation all types of maps, aeronautical & charts and info-graphics.  As mobility and communication technologies become available and affordable, the need for ‘going digital’ increases. Initiatives, like Digital India will become reality in years to come.

Initially, Tablets like the iPad, Windows and Android devices all pulling the world’s population into a mobile future. We don’t see people sending geospatial files through the mail, in fact, most postal agencies are experiencing rapid and fundamental changes as people share files digitally and connect through social media innovations.

As cartographic activities moved along with this change, many people experienced the benefits of digital cartography. They could make maps easier, particularly as automation increase, and they could share data with colleagues more readily – giving rise to people voicing a need for more openness.

Another benefit that arose with digital cartography and increased sharing was the ability to integrate and re-create new data, perform geospatial analysis and to be able to push new found knowledge around the global at the press of a button.

Instantly, anyone around the world can create a map for use in places where they do not live, thereby providing high quality services to the most remote of locations quickly. It is this benefit that can perhaps carry the largest benefits, it extends well beyond the sharing data, collaborating phases, to embrace the publishing and knowledge sharing aspects of information exchange.

Transformation is often the outcome of more knowledge. As digital cartography becomes increasingly available to more people, with greater amounts of details, including cultural intelligence embedded into it, then it should be realized that we are at a time when true, effective and positive transformational change can take place – like no other time. Some Softwares/tool for digital cartography are mention below.

mapnik-logoMapnik is an open source mapping toolkit for desktop- and server-based map rendering, written in C++. One of its many users is the OpenStreetMap project (OSM), which uses it in combination with an Apache Web Server module (mod_tile) to render tiles that make up the OSM ‘Slippy Map’ Layer.An XML file can also be used to define a collection of mapping objects that determine the appearance of a map, or objects can be constructed programmatically in C++, Python, and Node.js.

tillmill-logoTileMill a powerful, full-featured library that includes support for RGBA color, True Type fonts, rasters, patterns, and even SVG transforms. Create beautiful interactive maps, Whether you’re a journalist, web designer, researcher, or seasoned cartographer, TileMill is the design studio to create stunning interactive maps.

Inkscape is an open-source vector graphics editor similar to Adobe Illustrator, Corel Draw, Freehand, or Xara X. What sets Inkscape apart is its use of Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), an open XML-based W3C standard, as the native format.

Geographic Information System

Geographic Information System


A Geographical Information System (GIS) is a computer system for capturing, storing, displaying and analyzing data related to positions on Earth’s surface. A geographic information system (GIS) lets us visualize, question, analyze, and interpret data to understand relationships, patterns, and trends in spatial context. GIS provide Improved Communication, transparency, better decision making environment.  Also, managing things geographically brings greater efficiency with least cost. GIS benefits organizations of all sizes and in almost every industry. Knowledge Spatial offers  GIS based solutions and services, data creation, analysis and management services to meet the enterprise requirements .

With GIS technology, people can compare the locations of different things in order to discover how they relate to each other. For example, using GIS, the same map could include sites that produce pollution, such as gas stations, and sites that are sensitive to pollution, such as wetlands. Such a map would help people determine which wetlands are most at risk.

GIS can use any information that includes location. The location can be expressed in many different ways, such as latitude and longitude, address, or PIN code. Many different types of information can be compared and juxtaposed using GIS. The system can include data about people, such as population, income, or education level. It can include information about the land, such as the location of streams, different kinds of vegetation, and different kinds of soil. It can include information about the sites of factories, farms, and schools, or sewerage, roads, and electric power lines etc.

Data in many different forms can be entered into GIS. Data that are already in map form can be included in GIS. This includes such information as the location of rivers and roads, hills and valleys. Digital, or computerized, data can also be entered into GIS. An example of this kind of information is data collected by satellites that show land use / cover—the location of agriculture fields, cities / towns, or forests. GIS can also include data in table form, such as population information. GIS technology allows all these different types of information, no matter their source or original format, to be overlaid on top of one another on a single map.

Putting information into GIS is called data capture. Data that are already in digital form, such as images taken by satellites and most tables, can simply be uploaded into GIS. Maps must be scanned, or converted into digital information.

GIS must make the information from all the various maps and sources align, so they fit together. One reason this is necessary is because maps have different scales. A scale is the relationship between the distance on a map and the actual distance on Earth. GIS combines the information from different sources in such a way that it all has the same scale.

Often, GIS must also manipulate the data because different maps have different projections. A projection is the method of transferring information from Earth’s curved surface to a flat piece of paper or computer screen. No projection can copy the reality of Earth’s curved surface perfectly. Different types of projections accomplish this task in different ways, but all result in some distortion. To transfer a curved, three-dimensional shape onto a flat surface inevitably requires stretching some parts and squeezing other parts. A world map can show either the correct sizes of countries or their correct shapes, but it can’t do both. GIS takes data from maps that were made using different projections and combines them so all the information can be displayed using one common projection.

Once all of the desired data have been entered and managed into a GIS system, they can be combined to produce a wide variety of individual maps, depending on which data layers are included. For instance, using GIS technology, many kinds of information can be shown about a single city. Maps can be produced that relate such information as average income, book sales, and voting patterns. Any GIS data layer can be added or subtracted to the same map. GIS maps can be used to show information about number and density. For example, GIS can be used to show how many banks or doctors there are in different areas compared with the population.

GIS often contains a large variety of data that do not appear in an onscreen or printed map. GIS technology sometimes allows users to access this information. User can point to a spot on a computerized map to find other information stored in the GIS about that location. For example, a user might click on a school to find how many students are enrolled, how many students there are per teacher, or what sports facilities the school has.

GIS technology has role to play in many different fields.  Application such as retail market company use GIS to determine where to locate a new store. Biologists use GIS to track animal migration patterns.  GIS maps can show disaster management taskforce what neighborhoods are most in danger, where to locate shelters, and what routes people should take to reach safety. Researchers and Scientists use GIS to can use satellite data to study topics such as how much of the Himalayan region is covered in ice. Compare population growth to resources such as drinking water, or to try to determine a region’s future needs for public services like parking, roads, and electricity. Applications are endless to the kind of information that can be analyzed using GIS technology.

GIS systems are often used to produce three-dimensional images. This is useful, for example, to military commanders to analysis enemy territory for better terrain appreciation or   geologists studying faults

GIS technology makes updating maps much easier. Updated data can simply be added to the existing GIS database. A new digital map can prepared with required cartographic treatments for on screen display or hardcopy print out. This eliminate the traditional process of drawing a map, which can be time-consuming and expensive. Some popular open source GIS software databases, library with different capabilities and perpective are mention below

Remote Sensing

Remote Sensing

Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on site observation. It also replaces costly and slow data collection on the ground, ensuring in the process that areas or objects are not disturbed. Its uses include different areas such as natural resource management, environment,  agricultural land usage & conservation, and Defense & security and many more.Knowledge Spatial provide technical expertise, Software solution and services to the customers across government, industry, and academia, with focus on Indian and foreign satellite sensors’ capabilities, reliability, and accuracy.

Remote sensing is a sub-field of geography. Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on site observation.  In modern usage, the term generally refers to the use of aerial / satellite sensors technologies to detect and classify objects on Earth (both on the surface, and in the atmosphere and oceans) by means of propagated signals (e.g. electromagnetic radiation). Remote Sensing may be classified into active remote sensing (when a signal is first emitted from aircraft or satellites) or passive (e.g. sunlight) when information is merely recorded.

Passive sensors gather radiation that is emitted or reflected by the object or surrounding areas. Reflected sunlight is the most common source of radiation measured by passive sensors. Examples of passive remote sensors include film photography, infrared, charge-coupled devices, and radiometers. Active collection, on the other hand, emits energy in order to scan objects and areas whereupon a sensor then detects and measures the radiation that is reflected or backscattered from the target. RADAR and LIDAR are examples of active remote sensing where the time delay between emission and return is measured, establishing the location, speed and direction of an object.

Remote sensing makes it possible to collect data of inaccessible areas. It also replaces costly and slow data collection on the ground, ensuring in the process that areas or objects are not disturbed. Its uses include different areas such as natural resource management, agricultural land usage & conservation, and Defense & security and many more.

Some of the applications of remote sensing data :

Stereographic pairs of aerial photographs or satellite imageries have often been used to make topographic maps and large scale digital cartographic databases.

Multi-spectral sensor such as Indian Resourcesat satellites LISS-III (Linear Imaging Self Scanning Sensor) take images in multiple wavelengths of electro-magnetic radiation (multi-spectral). Maps of land cover and land use from thematic mapping can be used to prospect for minerals, detect or monitor land usage, deforestation, and health of plantations and crops. Weather satellites provides imageries for analyzing in Meteorology and climatology related phenomena.

Interferometric synthetic aperture radar Indigenous RISAT-1 data is used to produce digital elevation models (DEM) of large scale terrain. Doppler radar is used by local law enforcements’ monitoring of speed limits and in enhanced meteorological collection such as wind speed and direction within weather systems in addition to precipitation location and intensity.

Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) is well known in examples of weapon ranging, laser illuminated homing of projectiles. LIDAR is used to detect and measure the concentration of various chemicals in the atmosphere, while airborne LIDAR can be used to measure heights of objects and features on the ground more accurately than with radar technology. LIDAR has principal application in Forestry.

Hyperspectral imageries are used in various applications including mineralogy, biology, defence, and environmental measurements. It produces an image where each pixel has full spectral information with imaging narrow spectral bands over a contiguous spectral range.

Remote sensing allows to monitor risk areas in the long term, to determine desertification, environment and climate change factors, to support decision-makers in defining relevant measures of environmental management, and to assess their impacts to combat against it.

Radiometers and photometers are the most common instrument in use, collecting reflected and emitted radiation in a wide range of frequencies. The most common are visible and infrared sensors, followed by microwave, gamma ray and rarely, ultraviolet. They may also be used to detect the emission spectra of various chemicals, providing data on chemical concentrations in the atmosphere.

Organization employing the best tools and techniques to carry out projects of observing and understanding the world around us, thus expanding our knowledge of the Earth. Provide technical expertise, Solution and services to the customers across government, industry, and academia, with focus on Indian and foreign satellite sensors’ capabilities, reliability, and accuracy. Some of them from open source tecnology are mention here.

OPTICKS Digital Image Processing Software

Opticks is an expandable remote sensing and imagery analysis software platform that is free and open source. If you are interested you can learn about the history of Opticks.

If you’ve used commercial tools like: ERDAS IMAGINE, RemoteView, ENVI, or SOCET GXP, then you need to give Opticks a try. Unlike other competing tools, you can add capability to Opticks by creating an extension. Opticks provides the most advanced extension capability of any other remote sensing tool on the market.

GIMP Image Manipulation Software

GIMP is a freely distributed software for such tasks as photo retouching, image composition and image authoring.

It has many capabilities. It can be used as a simple paint program, an expert quality photo retouching program, an online batch processing system, a mass production image renderer, an image format converter, etc.

GIMP is expandable and extensible. It is designed to be augmented with plug-ins and extensions to do just about anything. The advanced scripting interface allows everything from the simplest task to the most complex image manipulation procedures to be easily scripted.

E-foto Digital Photogrammetry Software

E-foto provides the full implementation of a digital photogrammetric workstation as free software.E-foto Software possess photogrammetric functionalities that allow the development of professional topographic tridimentional mapping projects, by using as data sources aerial photogrammetric images obtained by both analog cameras and digital sensors.